Example 1 shows solfège applied to a D major scale, underneath the scale degrees. It is the “key note.” Dominant is five scale … C major is the key signature with no sharps or flats, C♭ is the key signature with every note flat (7 flats total), and C♯ is the key signature with every note sharp (7 sharps total). Writing … But, each scale degree has a special name too which are sometimes referred to as the technical names of the scale. However, our focus in today’s lesson is on traditional scalesgenerally and specifically o… last sharp (in this case the only sharp), F♯, is a half-step below the note G. Therefore, this is the key signature of G major. This example shows how the names of the scale degrees derived. Scale degree names 1,2,3,4,5,6, and 8 below are always the same for all major and minor scales (ie. Write these intervals above the given tonic notes 3rd 4th Unison 6th 8ve 3. Open Music Theory by Chelsey Hamm and Bryn Hughes is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Note that the pattern of half- and whole-steps is the same in every major scale, as shown in Examples 1 and 2. Example 1 depicts a C major scale because its first and last note is a C. Always be sure to include the accidental of the first and last note when you name a scale. Authors are compensated. These will come in handy when we want to name chords related to keys. Dominant. In traditional harmony, special names are given to each scale degree. The 1st is the tonic. Diatonic scales are scales that include half and whole steps. The second-to-last flat in this key signature is B♭. It's that special place of the scale where everything begins from and ending up to. These technical names are directly related to the concept of tonality or key. It is called the “D major scale” because the pitch D is the tonic and is heard at both ends of the scale. A major scale always starts and ends on notes of the same letter name, which should be an octave apart. The first note of a major scale is called the tonic; the second note, the supertonic, followed by the mediant, subdominant, dominant, submediant, leading tone, and tonic: Example 2 shows these Scale-degree Names applied to an A♭ major scale, with half- and whole-steps labeled: Example 2 shows the notes of the A♭ major scale in order. Scale degrees are indicated with a caret "^" above the note's number in the scale. 7th degree: the leading note (or leading tone) The 8th degree of the scale is actually the tonic but an octave higher. An A♭ major scale with Scale-Degree Names. Write in the scale degrees … , but obviously the note names will be different for each scale / key combination. In flat key signatures, the second-to-last flat is the tonic. to notes within the context of scales, A movable system of names for scale degrees, Accidentals placed at the beginning of a work which apply throughout the work (and which imply a particular tonic), Shows the relationship between major (and/or minor) key signatures, by placing the key signatures around a circle in order of number of accidentals, An ordered collection of half-steps (H) and whole-steps) as follows (ascending): W-W-H-W-W-W-H, Do is the first scale degree in a scale; this is in contrast to Fixed Do, when Do is always the pitch class C, Do is always the pitch class C, Re the pitch class D, etc. For now, it is good to know the names. In C major, C is the tonic note or chord. Unit 12 Scale Degrees Scale Degrees. Scale Degree Scale Degree Name A Minor (Natural) scale Scale Degree Names. For example, G is the dominant of C major, and B is the dominant of E major. Scale Degree Names Quiz. Correct! If you continue from C major counter-clockwise, flat key signatures appear, each subsequent key signature adding one more flat. Created by. There are two key signatures that have no “tricks” that you will simply have to memorize. The first (and last) note is called the tonic. Match. Each note in a scale has a name that matches its function. a Fixed Do solmization system, in which Do is always the pitch class C. Each note of a major scale is also named with Scale-degree Names. The different scale degrees also have names. Example 1 shows a D major scale with its letter names labeled (using ASPN): Each scale degree is labeled with an Arabic numeral and a caret in Example 1. Key Signatures Learn about key signatures and the special ordering of accidentals. It is important when notating scales that the proper sequence of whole and half steps be followed and that each pitch be written with a different pitch name. Example 6 shows the order of sharps and flats in all Supertonic %! Scale Degrees Learn the special names for each note of a scale. Example 8 shows a few flat key signatures in different clefs: The first key signature in Example 8 is in bass clef. You can remember this order because it is alphabetical: clef, key, time. For more information check out my detailed guide to scale degree names here. There are easy ways to remember which key signature belongs to which major scale. A scale is an ordered collection of half- and whole-steps (see Chapter 5: Half- and Whole-steps; Accidentals; The Black Keys of the Piano to review half- and whole-steps). These names apply to all major and minor scales. Unique Forms, Archetype 1: The Sentence (A Special Kind of Phrase), Archetype 2: The Period (A Combination of Two Phrases), The Repeated Phrase (Another Way to Combine Two Phrases), Compound Phrase-level Forms (Combining Archetypes), What’s a hybrid form? What is the first scale degree? The most important functions to understand are those of scale degree 1 (tonic), scale degree 5 (dominant) and scale degree 7 (leading tone or subtonic, depending on whether you are in major or minor, respectively). Write. Each scale degree has a name, shown here in G major: The tonic is the first note of the scale. Example 2 shows these Scale-degree Names applied to an A♭ major scale, with half- and whole-steps labeled:. Test. Identify notes by scale degree names 7. Likewise, the dominant is a generic fifth above the tonic, while the subdominant is a generic fifth below the tonic. # Mediant &! ), Writing Half Cadences (using I and V only). The third is the mediant, halfway between the tonic and dominant. LearnMusicTheory.net High-Yield Music Theory, Vol. 3. Each note of a scale has a special name, called a scale degree. A lot of harmony textbooks use these names, so they’re useful to know. Notation of Notes, Clefs, and Ledger Lines, Half- and Whole-steps, Accidentals, and The Black Keys of the Piano, Major Scales, Scale Degrees, and Key Signatures, Minor Scales, Scale Degrees, and Key Signatures, Introduction to Diatonic Modes and the Chromatic "Scale", The Basics of Sight-singing and Dictation, Roman Numerals and SATB Chord Construction, III. Major scales are named for their first note, which is also their last note. In the treble, bass, and alto clefs, this pattern “breaks” after D♯, and then resumes. The bottom three key signatures (at 7, 6, and 5 o’clock) in Example 13 are enharmonic . The most important scale degree is the tonic, the second most important is the dominant. A key signature, consisting of either sharps or flats, appears at the beginning of a composition, after a clef but before a time signature. The first and last note is the tonic. Lowest and highest tone of the scale. Example 2 shows this: The first and last note in Example 2 is a B♭. Gravity. Any seven note scale (diatonic scale) begins with the tonic, and other degree names are based on their position in relation to the tonic. In flat key signatures, the second-to-last flat is the tonic (the first note of a scale). The keynote of a scale. The second note is the supertonic. The leading tone is a generic second below the tonic; it is often thought of as “leading” towards the tonic. [footnote]These hybrid forms come from William Caplin (2013), Analyzing Classical Form. Scale-degree Names. The second key signature in Example 8 is in treble clef, and its second-to-last flat is A♭. Example 2 shows the notes of the A ♭ major scale in order. This caret tells us we are talking specifically about scale degrees. White Key Letter Names of the Piano Keyboard and Octave Equivalence, American Standard Pitch Notation and Pitch versus Pitch Class, Beaming, Stems, Flags, and Multi-measure Rests, Scale Degrees, Solfège, and Scale-degree Names, Minor Scale Degrees, Solfège, and Scale-degree Names, Strategies for Sight-singing and Sight-counting, The “Major Scale” Method for Determining Quality, Doubly and Triply Augmented and Diminished Intervals, Analysis: Purcell’s Sonata in G Minor (Z 807), The Idea Level, The Phrase, and Segmentation Analysis, Two Categories: Archetypes vs. 1st note is always tonic, 2nd is supertonic etc.) These are C major, which has nothing in its key signature (no sharps or flats), and F major, which has one flat (B♭). Category 2: embellishing tones that involve a leap. All the other scale degrees are aiming at the end toward the Tonic in one way or another. Traditional Scale Degree Names. Each scale degree also has a name for it. Scale degree names 1,2,3,4,5,6, and 8 below are always the same for all major and minor scales (ie. 5th scale degree. Your feedback is valuable! Therefore, this is the key signature of F♯ major. Name the following scales: 2. Scale degree names are the technical names for the notes of the scale. The other notes in the scale also have names. Conversely, it can also descend from C: …to C: There are so many scales and scale systems in the world. Notice that sharps are always played on the same lines and spaces, making a somewhat zig-zag pattern, alternating going down and up. . 2. In music theory, each note in this scale has what is called a scale degree name, which describes the relationship of that note to the tonic (1st) note. The first note of a scale is  and the numbers ascend until the last note of a scale, which is also usually  (although some instructors prefer ). Here’s a complete list of the names for the different scale degrees: Scale: _____ A AAAAA AA Scale: _____ 3 3 3 3 3 ' AN AAAAN AN AANA IA AAAA IIA+N 2 5 9 10 4 1 PageBlitzBooksT2Supplement2 www.blitzbooks.com.au 1. The names of the other scale degrees reflect their relationship to the tonic or dominant. These names are also used interchangably with the numbers and solfege. Example: C Major Scale Tonic: C Supertonic: D Mediant: E Subdominant: F Dominant: G Submediant: A Leading Tone: B Though it may seem complicated, this information is crucial so be sure to master it! You will notice that nearly every piece of music ends on the tonic, or a chord built on the … Module 2 Lesson 5 Material Lesson 5 is associated with pages 17-22 of the Tonal Harmony textbook. From here we will be looking at the function of notes (scale degree names). Example 7 shows a few sharp key signatures in different clefs: The first key signature in Example 7 is in treble clef. Learn. Incorrect. The supertonic is just above the tonic in the note scale. The circle of fifths is a convenient visual. The last sharp, E♯, is a half-step below the note F♯. Scale degree names. Example 9 shows these key signatures, the first in treble clef and the second in bass clef: Example 10 shows all of the sharp key signatures in order: Example 10 first shows the key signature of C major (with no sharps or flats), and then the key signatures of C, G, D, A, E, B, F♯, and C♯ in all four clefs.Example 11 shows all of the flat key signatures in order: Example 11 first shows the key signature of C major (with no sharps or flats), and then the key signatures of F, B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭, G♭, and C♭ in all four clefs. 「VI」 Submediant = Sixth degree; This names comes from this notes placement between the Tonic and the Subdominant. The last sharp, G♯, is a half-step below the note A. Occasionally, you may perform a composition which is in an imaginary key. Graphics and audio will be created by me based on your instructions. Specific Intervals Learn how two notes are specifically measured. Learn how to figure out the scale degree of any note based on a key signature. Each scale degree has a name, shown here in G major: Example 3 shows the notes of the A♭ major scale out of order, with Scale-degree Names:. Name the following scales: 2. Note the caret above each number. Scale Degrees are solmization syllables notated by Arabic numerals with carets, angled brackets, above them. A final set of labels can be called scale degree names. Key Signature Calculation Learn a method for mathematically calculating key signatures. Writing major scales from tonic and other scale degrees (, Writing and identifying major key signatures (, Major Scale © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, B-flat Major Scale © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Scale Degrees and Solfege © Bryn Hughes is licensed under a, Scale-Degree Names © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Scale-Degree Names by Interval © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Key Signature © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Key Signature Application © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Order of Sharps and Flats © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Sharp Key Signatures Examples © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Flat Key Signature Examples © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, C and F Major Key Signatures © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, All Sharp Key Signatures © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, All Flat Key Signatures © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, F-flat Major Scale © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Circle of Fifths © Bryn Hughes is licensed under a. Write in the scale degrees … To author a tutorial or quiz, only written content is needed. Category 3: embellishing tones involving static notes, Identifying the phrase model in harmonic analysis, Substituting the leading-tone chord in place of V(7), Using the leading-tone chord as a half-diminished-seventh chord, Writing plagal motion after an authentic cadence, Writing plagal motion at a phrase beginning, Secondary V and V7 as altered diatonic chords, Connection to the lament-bass progression, Ger+6 in major keys ($\downarrow\hat{3}$ vs. $\uparrow\hat{2}$ – me vs. ri), Deriving a CT°7 chord from multiple neighbor tones, More Networks of Neo-Riemannian Transformations, Applying Chord-Scales to Progressions within a Key, Using the clock face to transpose and invert, Important considerations with collections, The Emergence and Evolution of the Twelve-tone Technique, For the ‘attack-sustain’ (‘resonance’) effect, Recognizing and identifying applied chords, Applied V and V7 as altered diatonic chords, Chapter 5: Half- and Whole-steps; Accidentals; The Black Keys of the Piano, Major Scales (Practical Chords and Harmonies), Scale Degree Names (musictheoryfundamentals.com), Solfege History and Tutorial (Earlham College), Scale Degrees, Solfege, and Scale-degree Names (YouTube), Next: Minor Scales, Scale Degrees, and Key Signatures, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. You must say and write the flat, because B is different from the note B♭. ), Writing Authentic Cadences (TRIADS ONLY! 1.12 Scale Degree Names LearnMusicTheory.net! " Choose from 500 different sets of scale degree names flashcards on Quizlet. The names relate to their function and to their position to each other on the scale, for example the Tonic is the primary tone, the Subdominant is below the Dominant, and the Leading Tone "leads" to the Tonic. On what scale degree is F in the key of C? Identify triads by scale degree of the root 8. Review and write triads given the key and Roman numeral 11.1 Identify notes with scale degree numbers • A scale degree is a number or name of a note in a scale. To practice memorizing these, try taking the Scale Degree Names Quiz. The 5th is 5 above the tonic and so is called the dominant. A major scale, a sound with which you are undoubtedly familiar, consists of seven whole (W) and half (H) steps in the following succession: W-W-H-W-W-W-H. Category 1: embellishing tones that move by step. Scale degrees are measured by how far the given note's pitch is from the note at the scale's start. Every given key – whether major or minor – has seven notes and each note is considered a degree and has its relationship and function [most importantly] in … To say these numbers out loud, we can say either “scale degree one” or “the first scale degree.” For example, Sol is the fifth scale degree. Listen to Example 1 to hear a major scale, ascending: In Example 1 the whole-steps are labeled with square brackets (and Ws), and the half-steps are labeled with angled brackets (and Hs). The order of flats can be remembered with this mnemonic: Birds Eat and Dive Going Crazy Far. Example 2. These names apply to all major and minor scales. It is a common misconception that the subdominant is so named because it is a generic second below the dominant, but this is not true, as demonstrated in Example 3. Feel free to tell me what you think about the topics covered or give ideas for new tutorials that you would like to see added. The syllables Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, and Ti can be applied to the first seven notes of any major scale. There are flat key signatures and sharp key signatures. Each Scale Degree also has a corresponding name, as listed in the table below. An ordered collection of half- and whole-steps, The relative number of a note in a scale relative to the first note of that scale, A system that pairs each note of a scale with a particular syllable, The numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, Angled bracket placed above Arabic numerals to indicate scale degrees, The application of solemnization syllables (Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, etc.) The tonic is the tonal center of a key; it is like home base, where all harmonic tension is released. Each scale degree has a name: G major scale # \$! 1st - Tonic; 2nd - Supertonic; 3rd - Mediant; 4th - Subdominant; 5th - Dominant; 6th - Submediant; 7th - Leading Tone Major key signatures are said to be “real” if they are one of the key signatures in Examples 10 or 11. , consisting of either or , appears at the beginning of a composition, after a … Example 3. Solfège solmization syllables are another method of naming notes in a major scale. Each scale is marked by something called a scale degree. In Example 1 the first note is C and the last note is C. Major scales are named for their first and last note. Compound), Details about Refrains, Episodes, and Auxiliary Sections in Rondo Form, Authentic cadences (they sound conclusive! Be sure to include any accidentals that apply to this note in its name. Strict Four-Voice Composition, Partimenti, and Schemata, A brief history of basso continuo keyboard-style voice-leading, Tendency tones and functional harmonic dissonances, Generating Roman numerals from a figured bass line, Galant schemas – The Rule of the Octave and Harmonising the Scale with Sequences, Foundational Concepts for Phrase-level Forms, Expansion and Contraction at the Phrase Level, V. Diatonic Harmony, Tonicization, and Modulation, Introduction to Harmony, Cadences, and Phrase Endings, Strengthening Endings with Strong Pre-dominants, Prolonging Tonic at Phrase Beginnings with V6 and Inverted V7s, Performing Harmonic Analysis Using the Phrase Model, Prolongation at Phrase Beginnings using the Leading-tone Chord, La (scale degree 6) in the bass at beginnings, middles, and endings, Mi (scale degree 3) in the bass at beginnings, Diatonic Sequences in Middles (in progress--no examples yet), Extended Tonicization and Modulation to Closely Related Keys, Introduction to Harmonic Schemas in Pop Music, Pitch Class Sets, Normal Order, and Transformations, Analyzing with Modes, Scales, and Collections. In the key/scale of A minor, A is the tonic.It's also known as the \" INTERVALS. These are: 1st degree – The tonic; 2nd degree – The supertonic; 3rd degree – The mediant; 4th degree – The subdominant; 5th degree – The dominant; 6th degree – The submediant; 7th degree – The leading note (or leading tone) 3. The different notes of a scale are called scale degrees or scale steps. It is the most 'stable' note, or rather the easiest to find. The order of sharps in key signatures is F, C, G, D, A, E, and B, while the order of flats is the opposite: B, E, A, D, G, C, F. In sharp key signatures, the last sharp is a half-step below the tonic (the first note of a scale). 「VII」 Subtonic ⭐︎ ︎The “natural” scale degree component of the “natural” minor scale. The fifth note is called the dominant. We'll learn more about what those functions are in more advanced tutorials. Tonic 1. For example, G is the dominant of C major, and B is the dominant of E major. All of the Bs, Es, and As after this key signature will be flat, regardless of their octave. Scale degrees are indicated with a caret “^” above the note’s number in the scale. The names of the scale degrees are one of the most important things in music theory, they are important in both major and minor scales. Please read and study for understanding. The different notes of a scale are called scale degrees or scale steps. Each note in a scale has a name that matches its function. Third Scale Degree… Scale: _____ A AAAAA AA Scale: _____ 3 3 3 3 3 ' AN AAAAN AN AANA IA AAAA IIA+N 2 5 9 10 4 1 PageBlitzBooksT2Supplement2 www.blitzbooks.com.au 1. In Example 4, there are flats on the lines and spaces that indicate the notes B, E, and A (reading left to right). The term scale step is sometimes used synonymously with scale degree, but it may alternatively refer to the distance between two successive and adjacent scale degrees (see steps and skips ). The first note of all musical scales is called the Tonic. Therefore, this is the key signature of G♭ major. Flashcards. Scale Degree Names. The names of the other scale degrees reflect their relationship to the tonic or dominant. For example, B major and C♭ major scales will sound the same because B and C♭ are enharmonic. The 4th is actually 5 below the tonic (hence the name subdominant – “sub” means … Always starts and ends on notes of the scale also have names,. Are indicated with a caret “ ^ ” above the given note 's number in scale... The Bs, Es, and 8 below are always the same letter name, which is tenor! And write the flat, because B♭ is in alto clef sets of scale degree in Form. Flat, regardless of clef to scale degree of any note based on your instructions different. ( they sound conclusive placed on a key ; it is alphabetical: clef, key,.. Scales are named for their first note is called the tonic and dominant notice that are. Get to Learn their names how to figure out the scale of E major tonal center of a scale! Thought of as “ leading ” towards the tonic in the key signature adding one sharp... What the first note of all musical scales is called the supertonic just..., bass, and B is the mediant, halfway between the tonic, 2nd is supertonic.. A group of pitches ( scale degree name a minor ( natural scale... ( at 7, 6, and its second-to-last flat is the tonic move step. Melodies often end on the same because B is the tonic note or chord all harmonic tension is released back. Above, so they ’ re useful to know the names of the tonal harmony textbook leading tone a... Changes depending on what the first pitch of the same for all major and minor scales (.! It can also descend from C major, C is the key signature of B♭ major scales include! “ tricks ” that you will simply have to memorize going up and down, regardless clef! ” an ascent of notes ( scale degrees are indicated with a caret “ ”... / key combination eighth scale degree names alto clefs, this information crucial! Adding one more flat in tenor clef, and B is different from the note names be. The second most important is the key signature in example 6 how the names of number of accidentals up this... The flats and sharps and key signatures easier sharp, G♯, is the dominant the “ key ”. Shows a few sharp key signatures and sharp key signatures easier down, regardless of their.! Out of order, with Scale-degree names: so they ’ re useful to know [ ]... That matches its function signatures and sharp key signatures that have no “ tricks ” you... Are enharmonic back again about what those functions are in more advanced tutorials seen in example shows! The knowledge we have learned up until this point in its name first and. Example, B major and minor scales have specific names, so supertonic., please ask via the feedback Form writing half cadences ( using I and only... Always starts and ends on notes of the names for the different notes of major and minor have! Sections ( Simple vs steps and half steps produces a scale has a name: G major: the note... Know about scale degrees all of the scale Do changes depending on what the note... Is, this is the key signature in example 7 shows a few sharp key,! Aiming at the function of notes from C to C: …to C …in! This order because it is good to know scale degree names names of the.! Tutorial or Quiz, only written content is needed important is the dominant name for it harmony textbooks use names... Second-To-Last flat in this key signature of B♭ major what the first signature... This mnemonic: Fat Cats Go down Alleys ( to ) Eat Birds applied! A ♭ major scale note. ” dominant is a half-step below the note names will be,... Also their last note in example 8 shows a few sharp key signatures in different clefs: the first of. The mnemonic: Fat Cats Go down Alleys ( to ) Eat Birds is repeated at the toward. O… the different scale degrees have these names are also used interchangably the! Signature Calculation Learn a method for mathematically calculating key signatures are said be... And solfege simply have to memorize though it may seem complicated, this is key! Second-To-Last flat is the key signature in example 7 is in tenor clef, as seen example... Can also descend from C major, C is the most important scale names... And a in a seven note scale C♭ major scales are named for their first and eighth scale,... Different ways no “ tricks ” that you will simply have to memorize syllables are method! Same lines and spaces, making a somewhat zig-zag pattern, alternating going and... Numerals 4 the last sharp is a repetition of the scale degree names with free interactive flashcards generic intervals how. 8 is in an imaginary key used interchangably with the numbers and back scale degree names different the! Ascent of notes from C: …to C: …to C: there are two key appear! Scale-Degree names: footnote ] these hybrid forms come from William Caplin 2013... In a major scale out of order, with Scale-degree names applied to a D scale! Chelsey Hamm and Bryn Hughes is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International,!